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Unconventional shale gas and oil resource systems - costar




, (2004) 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 3 North American Shale Resource Plays Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry Jarvie, AAPG Memoir 97, in press 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 4 Shale-Gas Resource Systems High thermal maturity thermogenic mudstone gas systems Combination gas-oil systems High thermal maturity thermogenic hybrid-mudstone gas systems Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry Biogenic or low thermal maturity thermogenic gas systems Jarvie, AAPG Memoir 97, in press 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 5 Hybrid Shale Resource Play: Matrix and Organic Porosity 6 y = -0. %) Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 6 Shale Resource System Overlap and Production Potential Tight Shale Hybrid Shale Fractured Shale Jarvie, AAPG Memoir 97, in press Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 7 Niobrara Shale with closely associated carbonates Source: Encana and Wells Fargo Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 8 Generation/Maturation Effects on TOC TOC (wt. %) • Accounts for petroleum generation • Accounts for any organic porosity development • Accounts for solubility and swelling Carbon in expelled petroleum (wt.

%) Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry Non-Generative Organic Carbon (wt. %) • Does not account for petroleum generation • Accounts for adsorptive capacity development Generative Organic Carbon (wt.

Overview
marine) 50 40 Mixed Type II / III Oil / Gas Prone 30 20 Barnett Shale Maturation Trend Organic Lean 10 Type III Gas Prone Difference is the amount of petroleum generated Dry Gas Prone 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON (TOC, wt. %) Jarvie and Lundell, 1991 Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 10 Determining TOC original from present-day measurements of TOC and pyrolysis yields For example, TOCpd = 4. 00% Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 11 Conversion of TOC in wt.

% Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 12 Formation of Organic Porosity from Generative Organic Carbon Assumptions TOC: 7. % TOCo TOCo is 37% GOC Density assumptions: Inorganic matrix: 2. 0 Organic Porosity Potential (% of Bulk Volume) Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 13 Organic Porosity Development in the Barnett Shale Gas System Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry Loucks et al.

, 2009 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 14 Shale Oil Resource System: U. 70%Ro) Courtesy Core Labs Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 15 Why are no organic pores typically seen in the oil window? Solubility of oil in kerogen and kerogen swelling Literature reports fractionation of aromatics from saturated hydrocarbons in kerogen swollen with different solvents (Ertas et al. 2006)  Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 16 Bakken Shales: enhanced aromaticity in C7 ratio 5.

Member oils Sanish Three Forks oils Antelope Sanish oils Elkhorn Ranch Bakken oils Bicentennial Bakken oils Pierre Creek Bakken oils Demores Bakken oil Charlson Bakken-Three Forks oil Buckhorn Bakken oil Squaw Gap Stoneview Bakken oil Sanish U. Bakken Shale extracts Aromaticity Ratio (Toluene/n-Heptane) 4. 0 Paraffinicity Ratio (n-C7/Methylcyclohexane) Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry Jarvie et al.

, 2011 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 17 Lower Green River Oil Shale: Chevron Marsing 16 #1 core 1000 ~0. core of the Lower Green River Shale 700 HYDROGEN INDEX (mg OIL/g TOC) How much can relative hydrogen content vary within a given source unit? 800 600 Type II Oil Prone (usu. marine) 500 30-59% GOC 400 300 Mixed Type II / III Oil / Gas Prone 17-29% GOC 200 Type III Gas Prone Type III Gas Prone ~1.

40% Ro Type IV Dry Gas Prone 1 or when Oil Saturation Index (S1/TOCx100) > 100 mg oil/g TOC Data extracted from Lopatin et al. , 2003; Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry Jarvie, AAPG Memoir 97, in press 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 26 Shale Oil Resource Plays Devonian Bakken Formation Cretaceous Niobrara Shale Ordovician Utica Shale Miocene Monterey Shale Cretaceous Eagle Ford Shale Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry Mississippian Barnett Shale Devonian Woodford Shale 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 27 Geochemical Log of Bakken Formation Resource System, Parshall Field, ND Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 28 Range of Understanding Needed for shale resource play assessment So, Sw Modified from King, 2010, SPE-133456 Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 29 Summary • There are various types of shale resource systems – Hybrid systems are the most productive due to: • Having less adsorptive lithofacies present • Possibility of recovering a portion of both retained and expelled petroleum • TOC can be restored if original hydrogen index can be determined or estimated • Generative Organic Carbon (GOC) accounts for petroleum generation and organic porosity development • Oil crossover effect can be used to identify producible oil potential (and in organic-rich intervals - active expulsion) • Various factors must be evaluated to assess the commercial viability of shale resource systems Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 30 Thank you ! danjarvie@wwgeochem. Com Dan Jarvie, Worldwide Geochemistry 31st Oil Shale Symposium, Golden, CO , 17-20 October 2011 31 .




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